The sockets are attached with cyanoacrylate (or silicone adhesive) to thin plates of glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy (fiberglass). The most common insulation is "Kynar". It then inserts "finger commands" into each wire record so that automated wire-wrap machines or assembly technicians can place the wire body into a routing lane. In the middle 1980s they were gradually replaced by connectorized cables. It can be encoded once, and then shared by all devices of that type. Gone were the hydraulic units, in favor of direct drive motors to rotate the ball screws, with rotary encoders to provide positioning feedback. Often done by hand in older systems, this step is now done automatically by EDA programs that perform "schematic capture." This permits manual wire-wrapping to be used for repairs. Larger, hand held, high speed electric wrap guns replaced soldering in the late 1960s for permanent wiring, when installing exchange equipment. Some systems have been able to accept high-level logic designs written in a design language similar to VHDL or Verilog and compile the designs to automatically generate a schematic and bill of materials. The corners of the post bite in with pressures of tons per square inch. The principal competitor in this application is punch blocks, which are quicker but less secure. The tool is rapidly twisted. This routing problem is equivalent to the travelling salesman problem, which is NP complete, and therefore not amenable to a perfect solution in a reasonable time. A correctly designed wire-wrap tool applies up to twenty tons of force per square inch on each joint. As bottom and top wires are assigned, they can also be assigned the selected wire colors for bottom and top. Wire-wrap construction cannot provide the ground planes and power distribution planes possible with multilayer printed circuit boards, increasing the possibility of noise.. This arrangement permits manual repair or modification with the removal of at most three wires. Modern wire wrapping technology was developed after WWII at Bell Laboratories as a means of making electrical connections in a new relay being designed for use in the Bell Telephone system. 20 Gauge Jewelry Wire, Anezus Craft Wire Tarnish Resistant Copper Beading Wire for Jewelry Makin… The netlist is then resorted, by net name, so that all the pins of each net are together. Annotations are encoded in a field of each record of the net list. 828-830, Horowitz and Hill "the Art of Electronics 3rd Edition", p. 816, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Military Standard: Connections, Electrical, Solderless Wrapped", "A New Twist in Telephony (advertisement)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wire_wrap&oldid=968489772, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from April 2011, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 July 2020, at 18:35. The automatic wire wrap machines themselves were quite large, 6 ft (1.8 m) tall and 8 ft (2.4 m) square. The ends of each wire are always at the same height on the post, so that at most three wires need to be replaced to replace a wire. Wire wrap is one of the most repairable systems for assembling electronics. The connections themselves are firmer and have lower electrical resistance due to cold welding of the wire to the terminal post at the corners. The silver-plated wire coating cold-welds to the gold. Devices and pins were then renamed from names like U36-2, i.e.  A design team headed by Arthur C. Keller developed the “Keller Wrap Gun”, and the entire wrap system was passed over to Western Electric for industrial application. After this, a random-routed board can have wire sizes calculated as the distance between pins, plus the stripped distances on each end, plus a percentage (usually 5%) for slack. But in a semi-automated wire-wrap system, this moves the wrap head away from the user's hand when placing a wire. Slightly larger jobs are done with a manual "wire wrap gun" having a geared and spring-loaded squeeze grip to spin the bit rapidly. 30 gauge (~0.0509mm2) silver-plated soft copper wire is insulated with a fluorocarbon that does not emit dangerous gases when heated.  These usually allow simulation and debugging of logic designs before logic circuits are actually constructed. A01 is identified as a 74C00. It also reduces wear on the wire-wrap machines, and allows assembly technicians to place more wires per hour. Wire wrap was used for assembly of high frequency prototypes and small production runs, including gigahertz microwave circuits and supercomputers. This is easy: Start with the bottom. Bottom wires are placed before top wires. This could be quite dangerous if safety interlocks were not maintained properly.  The square hard-gold-plated post thus forms 28 redundant contacts. This permits an assembly technician to pick wires from bins of standard-length prestripped wire. A computer program then "explodes" the device list, coordinates, and device descriptions into a complete pin list for the board by using templates for each type of device. A listing is made of the wires and other items needed for assembly, which is sorted and printed out for use by machine operators, and turned into a tape or card deck for the machine. Wires of different colors, but the same size are also sorted to be placed together. The turn and a half of insulated wire helps prevent wire fatigue where it meets the post. Vanuit een aantal basis vaardigheden waaronder het maken van loops, krullen en draaiingen van de draad ontstaan later de prachtigste sieraden in de meest uiteenlopende variëteiten. The tool was marketed under its original name – since the name of the manufacturer was coincidentally the same as the name of the inventor. Wire wrapping was used for splices and for finishing cable ends in suspension bridge wires and other wire rope rigging, usually with a smaller diameter wire wrapped around a larger wire or bundle of wires. Early wire wrapping was performed manually; a slow and careful process. In space-rated or airworthy wire-wrap assemblies, the wires are boxed, and may be conformally coated with wax to reduce vibration. Later, somewhat smaller machines were "vertical" (14FV) which meant the boards were placed onto a tooling plate with pins facing the machine operator.